Ultimate War, War, and Peace

Some variant of the State of the Union address has been constitutionally mandated since 1789. However, only in recent years (since 1933) has the message been delivered orally, and the first televised State of the Union address was delivered by President Harry Truman in 1947. Prior to that, the SOTU addresses were primarily given over the radio, and so was Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s historic address in 1941, on the cusp of entering a generation-defining war. His war justifications were also echoed in 2002 by George W. Bush, consoling a nation reeling from the shock of the 9/11 terrorist attacks which rendered 3,000 Americans dead. Both of these speeches united a nation against a single cause, another frontier to push forward. In 1941, Roosevelt warned the Union of the impending threat of the terrible Axis powers in Europe. In 2002, George W. Bush referred to Iran, Iraq, and North Korea as the axis of evil. Both Presidents would later delve into war that would overtake much of the culture of America during the following years.

However, in 2014, Barack Obama took a much lighter stance on the war mongering. With his statement, “Together with our allies, we will complete our mission there by the end of this year, and America’s longest war will finally be over, [applause]” Obama is attempting to declare a new “Pax Americana,” a peace the world has not known since before the onset of the World Wars. Some of Obama’s main points of pride came from the lack of troops overseas, while George W. Bush boasts about the coalition of nations ready to invade the Middle East to eradicate the axis of evil which plagues the world: “We will work closely with our coalition to deny terrorists and their state sponsors the materials, technology, and expertise to make and deliver weapons of mass destruction. We will develop and deploy effective missile defenses to protect America and our allies from sudden attack.” Bush desired to completely wipe the terrorist threat of the face of the earth, and he would take all means necessary. Despite Obama and Bush placing an emphasis on the individual soldiers who had fought or will fight in the war on terror, a change in ideology has clearly taken place since the 9/11 attacks, and Obama acknowledged it by toning down the spirit with which war is fought.

In the middle of this spectrum, between war and peace, lies Roosevelt’s address, which outlined more clear motives for war, and bluntly stated that America was in danger: 

“I find it, unhappily, necessary to report that the future and the safety of our country and of our democracy are overwhelmingly involved in events far beyond our borders. Armed defense of democratic existence is now being gallantly waged in four continents. If that defense fails, all the population and all the resources of Europe, Asia, Africa and Australasia will be dominated by the conquerors. Let us remember that the total of those populations and their resources in those four continents greatly exceeds the sum total of the population and the resources of the whole of the Western Hemisphere-many times over.”

In his justification for war, Roosevelt cites the sheer population advantage that the East would have if the Axis powers were to succeed in their realistic goal of conquering Europe and Asia. He also greatly emphasized the fact that this was the first meaningful threat against the United States that was not initially sparked by domestic issues, and he also expresses America’s right to defend democracy, a justification later used by George W. Bush on defending his actions in the Middle East. Roosevelt’s use of tangible examples and risks places him far away from George W. Bush, who clamored for a war to prove America’s strength, rather than to protect its people. 

Over time, the State of the Union address has altered its values to reflect the common person’s desire, whether it be unlimited war, war, or peace. These desires are largely based on events occurring internationally at the time of the speech, such as World War II, 9/11, or the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. It seems as though the morale of a nation is dependent on the successes of American military, to a certain extent, and with the relative failure of military comes a downturn in nationalism. However, when it comes to defending America from a foreign threat, Americans unite in a wave nationalism, as if they were chasing another frontier. 

 

 

Sources: 

George W. Bush: “Address Before a Joint Session of the Congress on the State of the Union,” January 29, 2002. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=29644.

 

Barack Obama: “Address Before a Joint Session of Congress on the State of the Union,” January 28, 2014. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=1045

 

Franklin D. Roosevelt: “Annual Message to Congress on the State of the Union,” January 6, 1941. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=16092.

The Life of a Voyageur

A duck calmly scooted across the glassy lake, mist rising off the water in the clear morning light. Squirrels frantically climbed up the trees, chasing one another to the sky. Birds gently glided on the cool air of dawn, majestically taking in the landscape before them, seeing further than the sight of the keenest animal. A brisk wind was beginning to pick up, shattering the placidity of the mirror-like water. In the distance, a dark, towering cloud approached the serene home of the innocent animals. The skies brought forth a cataclysmic storm, strikes of lightning obliterating land and igniting fires, thunder resonating for miles and miles. The storm brought a fresh beginning.


The Voyageurs Came

Swiftly paddling the lakes and rivers, the voyageurs arrived. Carried in the hollowed trunks of a birch tree, the voyageurs explored the expansive Canadian wilderness with nothing more than what they could carry. The physical expectations of voyageurs were grueling. They were required to paddle at a rate of 50 strokes per minute. They plowed through beaver dams, looking for their makers’ expensive fur, and portaged through the muddy forest. On some of these portages, men would hoist 2 90-pound bags of food and fur for miles until they found another river or lake. Voyageurs expended approximately 5000 calories a day. To support such an exhausting lifestyle, voyageurs would receive resupplies along the fur trading route. The food they ate ranged from corn and wild rice to strips of dried buffalo meat (pemmican).

There were 2 sets of voyageurs – one group that made the journey from Grand Portage, a fort by Lake Superior in modern-day Minnesota, all the way to Lake Athabasca, located in northern Saskatchewan. They had to navigate over 2,000 miles of rugged wilderness between their starting destination and their ending destination. These men were known as the “men of the north.” They used a 25 foot long canoe known as the North Canoe, which held 5-6 men. Another group of voyageurs made the shorter trip from Montreal to Grand Portage. These men used the Montreal canoe, a 36 foot long canoe that held up to 10 men. The voyageurs would spend the winter in either Montreal, or in Fort Chipewyan, located near Lake Athabasca.

Both factions of voyageurs shared the true spirit of the wild: They would break out into song while on a treacherously long, 14 hour day of paddling, to raise spirits and morale. The life of a voyageur was rough – all voyageurs were at risk of drowning, broken limbs, twisted spines, and a morbid number of swarming mosquitos. Furthermore, the voyageurs woke well before the crack of dawn, as early as 3 in the morning, and breakfast was taken on the road, after 12 miles, or 4 pipes, of traveling. In fact, the pipe was used as a measure of distance as voyageurs would stop roughly every hour to smoke.

The beaver and its fur drove exploration of the Northern US and Canada. Only once trains and motorboats were widely used did the true spirit of the voyageur die out. These rugged, adventure-seeking men were motivated to break new ground in the North Woods. The voyageurs crafted a sense of adventure that has not yet left the American people, and the legend of their trailblazing spirit forever remains on the lakes and streams of the North Woods.

Image

 

Shooting the Rapids:

 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/42/Shooting_the_Rapids_1879.jpg

http://digital.library.mcgill.ca/nwc/history/08.htm

http://www.wildernessclassroom.com/www/schoolhouse/boreal_library/voyageurs/

http://www.calverley.ca/Part%2002%20-%20Fur%20Trade/2-002.html